The Chinese self-designation Hua and the root-word Ᾱrya

The essence of the article is that the word that the Chinese use to call themselves is derived from the Sanskrit word “Aryan.” The article explains how this conclusion is arrived at. Excerpt: ‘It is but rare that I take the trouble to write a mere summary of a paper I have read with increasing enthusiasm. Here is one occasion. It pertains to “The earliest Chinese words for ‘the Chinese’: the phonology, meaning and origin of the epithet Ḥarya — Ᾱrya in East Asia” by Christopher Beckwith, published in Journal Asiatique 304:2 (2016), p.231-248. Some comments and background data are mine, but for the factual frame, the entire credit goes to Beckwith.

I had never suspected that the Chinese word for “Chinese” has a foreign origin. But yes, it does. In fact, the same foreign word has been borrowed twice and yielded two different Chinese words, one of which is widely used as the ethnonym for “Chinese”.’

“At any rate, the same word, or etymologically a homophonous loanword which came to be written with the same character, came to serve as the name of “us, Chinese”. According to Beckwith, in this meaning the term does not predate the Warring States period, the final part of the Zhou age (-5th to -3rd). At that time, knowledge was extant about distantly neighbouring countries, including Daxia 大夏, meaning “Greater Bactria” or “the Bactrian Empire”, i.e. Central Asia, then firmly held by the Iranian-speaking Scythians. These were a predominant influence from Croatia to Mongolia, where they imparted their lucrative knowledge of metallurgy and horse-training (Scythian legends pertaining to these skills were interiorized even by the Japanese). Their ancestral heartland was Bactria, i.e. present-day northern Afghanistan and southeastern Uzbekistan around the Amu Darya river (Greek: Oxus), an oasis friendly to agriculture and habitation amidst a harsh and inhospitable region.

The later Chinese tended to identify themselves with their ruling class. The Qin 秦dynasty (-3rd) yielded the international name China, Sanskrit Cīnā; the Han 漢 dynasty (-3rd to +3rd) lent its name to the usual self-designation of the ethnic Chinese as distinct from the minorities within China as “the Han”. It might be that a Chinese elite for some reason had identified itself with the expanding Scythians.”[...] read more

The Impossible Dream: Don’t Bet on It

They were ordinary folks: he a 59-year-old retired steelworker, she a night waitress in a cheap restaurant for 36 years. They lived in Rehobeth Beach, Delaware, in their mobile home, enjoying the seashore and an occasional visit from their granddaughter, Michelle. Then, last July 22, they became celebrities: Nicholas and Marvein Jorich hit the jackpot in the Pennsylvania State Lottery and were more than $8.8 million richer.

“I’ve dreamed of this for 36 years!” exclaimed Mr. Jorich. (That’s how long he’s been married, and how long he worked in the steel mill.)[...] read more

Gauda Sarasvata Brahmanas from Karnataka ended up in Bengal

I always wondered how the families of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis, who were Gauda Sarasvata Brahmanas from Karnataka ended up in Bengal. This article explains this mystery.

“Sena Dynasty  ruled Bengal for little over a century (c 1097-1225).The emergence of the dynasty, who supplanted the Palas in Bengal towards the close of the 11th century AD, is a very important chapter in the history of ancient Bengal. Taking advantage of the revolt of the Samantachakra in the varendra during the reign of Mahipala II, vijayasena, the founder of the Sena dynasty, gradually consolidated his position in Western Bengal and ultimately assumed an independent position during the reign of Madanapala. One important aspect of Sena rule in Bengal is that the whole of Bengal was
brought under a single rule for the first time in its history…” FULL ARTICLE[...]

Q&A: Once initiated, how does one further develops and maintains a strong and proper relationship as a disciple with the Guru?

Thank you for your question. However, it is not an easy question to answer but nevertheless I’ll try to offer some of sastric advice and some of my personal experience of whatever little value that may be. First of all here is an straightforward and excellent explanation which summons it all up by Srila Bhaktissidhanta Saraswati Thakur in his Amrita-vani “immortal instructions”:

33. Can one be attached to sense gratification even after taking initiation?[...] read more

Was Draupadi disrobed at all?

To read two interesting philosophical papers in defense of Srila
Prabhupada’s teachings in his books, please click the link below. Excerpt: Srila Prabhupada in his comments on Srimad Bhagavatam writes substantially that the attempted disrobing of Draupadi took place. In The Draupadi and Dharmaraja articles, we encounter a rather surprising statement, “I seriously wonder if this incident took place, based on evidence from the Bhagavatam . . . There is not a word about disrobing, nor about Yudhisthira gambling her.”

http://www.krishnaeastandwest.com/articles.html[...]

Sri Andal- A Brief Life-Sketch

Sri Andal (a female) is  one of the twelve Alwars  who appeared on this earth in 3000  B.C.  at Srivilliputhur near Madurai. Andal was found in the Tulsi garden, in the premises of the temple of Sri Vatapatra Sai. Peri alwar, her father, found her while tending the garden.

From childhood she used to listen to the pastimes of Lord Krishna with rapt attention and developed a deep love for the Lord. Andal helped her father in weaving flower garlands to offer to the temple Deity every day. One morning, Peri-alwar observed her wearing and adorning herself with the flower-garland intended for the Deity and herself looking into a mirror and enjoying it. He considered this as an act of disrespect and, with great anguish, did not offer the garland to the Lord on that day. The Lord appeared in his dream and informed him that He relished only the garland worn by Godai (Andal) and that in future flower garlands worn by Godai alone be offered to Him.[...] read more

Srila Bhaktivinoda’s Grief

We are now sitting in our bhajana-kutira in Sri Purusottama-ksetra. Why have we abandoned the capital of scholarship, the crowded and busy Calcutta, to escape to this far-off place? Some time back, when we had just started the publication of Sajjana-tosani, our heart was enlivened with hope: the more an unadulterated Vaisnava-dharma is promoted throughout the world, the more benefit its people would get. We took up our work with such honest intentions. Many learned gosvamis and babajis started coming from all different parts of Bengal to offer help. One impersonalist, a renowned scholar, joined us and, captivated by the beauty of suddha-bhakti, started manifesting pure Vaisnava behavior. On hearing the charming instructions on Vaisnava-dharma even mundaners were enchanted by suddha-bhakti. Those fond of music and song who were previously averse to God now submerged themselves wholeheartedly in the waves of suddha Hari-kirtana, continuously rejoicing at their good fortune. In towns and villages, devotional societies were established one after another. The pure Vaisnava faith manifested its glories in the hearts of almost every person in Bengal, astounding and delighting all by its natural splendor and sweetness.

Seeing such changes, beyond our boldest expectations, in the life of Bengal, our enthusiasm in preaching suddha-bhakti increased day by day. Unfortunately, at this very point the times and course of events suddenly altered. All those false religions that had hidden themselves hither and thither from the powerful rays of Vaisnava-dharma, just as glowworms hide from the rays of the sun, suddenly started crawling out from their hiding places, taking on new forms. Mayavada, the religion of the demons that for the time being had sunk into the abyss of forgetfulness, emerged once again in people’s conversations and discussions, this time camouflaged by the words of smrti and having taken refuge on the boat of brahmana scholars’ logic.[...] read more